Introduction to Rapid Prototyping
Rapid prototyping manufacturing technology, also known as rapid prototyping technology, (RP technology);
RP technology is developed on the basis of modern CAD/CAM technology, laser technology, computer numerical control technology, precision servo drive technology and new material technology. Different kinds of rapid prototyping systems have different forming principles and system characteristics due to the different forming materials used. However, the basic principle is the same, that is, “layered manufacturing, layer by layer”, similar to the mathematical integration process. Figuratively speaking, the rapid prototyping system is like a “stereo printer”.
It can directly accept product design (CAD) data without preparing any mold, tool and fixture, and quickly manufacture samples, molds or models of new products. Therefore, the popularization and application of RP technology can greatly shorten the development cycle of new products, reduce the development cost and improve the development quality. From the traditional “division method” to today’s “growth method”, from modular manufacturing to modelless manufacturing, this is the revolutionary significance of RP technology to manufacturing
The characteristics of rapid prototyping
RP technology discretizes the complex 3D processing of an entity into a series of lamellar processing, which greatly reduces the processing difficulty and has the following characteristics:
- Forming the whole process of fast, suitable for the modern fierce product market.
- Can make any complex shape of three-dimensional entity;
- The CAD model is directly driven to realize the highly integration of design and manufacturing, and its intuitiveness and easy modification provide an excellent design environment for the perfect design of products.
- Molding process without special fixture, mold, tool, not only save the cost, but also shorten the production cycle.
- The high integration of technology is not only the inevitable product of the development of modern science and technology, but also the comprehensive application of them, with distinctive features of high and new technology.
The above characteristics determine that RP technology is mainly suitable for new product development, rapid single and small batch parts manufacturing, complex shape parts manufacturing, mold and model design and manufacturing, but also suitable for difficult to process materials manufacturing, shape design inspection, assembly inspection and rapid reverse engineering.
The formation process of rapid prototyping
Figuratively speaking: the rapid prototyping system is equivalent to a “three-dimensional printer”.
It can quickly and directly realize the single production of parts without any tool, mold and fixture. This process usually takes 1 to 7 days, depending on the complexity of the parts. In other words, RP technology is a rapid and direct manufacturing of individual parts.
classification of rapid prototyping
3D printing technology is a general term for a series of rapid prototyping technologies. Its basic principle is laminated manufacturing. The section shape of the workpiece is formed by scanning the rapid prototyping machine in the X-Y plane, and the thickness of the plane is discontinuously shifted at the Z coordinate to form the 3D workpiece. At present, the rapid prototyping technology in the market is divided into 3DP technology, FDM melt lamination molding technology, SLA stereolithography technology, SLS selective laser sintering, DLP laser molding technology and UV UV molding technology.
3 dp technology: The 3 dp technology of 3 d printers use standard ink-jet printing technology, through the liquid interlocking matrix on the powder on the thin layer, to print each component of a cross section data to create step by step a way to create a three-dimensional solid model, using the technology to print the sample of the model and the actual product has the same color, color analysis results can also be directly depicted on the model, The information conveyed by the model sample is large.
FDM melting laminating technology: FDM melting laminating technology is to heat the filamentous hot melt material, at the same time three-dimensional nozzle under the control of the computer, according to the section profile information, the material selectively coated on the workbench, rapid cooling to form a section. After one layer is formed, the machine table drops a height (that is, the layer thickness) and then forms the next layer, until the whole solid shape is formed. There are many kinds of forming materials, high strength and high precision of forming parts, and it is mainly suitable for forming small plastic parts.
SLA stereolithography technology: SLA stereolithography technology uses photosensitive resin as raw material. The laser is controlled by computer to scan the surface of liquid photosensitive resin point by point according to the section information of each layer of the parts. The resin thin layer in the scanned area produces photopolymerization reaction and solidifies to form a thin layer of the parts. After one layer is cured, the table is moved down a layer thick, and a new layer of liquid resin is applied to the previously cured resin surface until the 3D solid model is obtained. The method has the advantages of fast forming speed, high degree of automation, arbitrary complex shape and high dimensional accuracy. It is mainly applied to the rapid forming of complex and high-precision fine workpiece.
SLS selective laser sintering technology: SLS selective laser sintering technology is to lay a layer of powder material (metal powder or non-metal powder) on the table in advance, and then let the laser under the control of the computer to sintere the solid part of the powder according to the contour information of the interface, and then continuously cycle, layer upon layer accumulation molding. The method has the advantages of simple manufacturing process, wide selection of materials, low cost and fast forming speed. It is mainly used in the casting industry to make rapid molds directly.
DLP laser molding technology: DLP technology and SLA laser molding stereo lithography technology is similar, but it is the use of high resolution digital light processor (DLP) projector to curing liquid photopolymer, step by step for curing light, because during the curing reaction of each layer through the slide plate curing, so faster than the same type of SLA stereo lithography technology faster. The technology can be molded with high precision, rivaling injection molded durable plastic parts in terms of material attributes, detail and surface finish.
UV ultraviolet forming technology: UV ultraviolet molding technology and SLA stereo lithography technology is similar to a similar, different is its use of UV ultraviolet light liquid photosensitive resin, forming a layer of a layer of bottom-up stack, in the process of forming did not produce noise, forming precision of the highest in the similar technology, are usually applied to the high accuracy requirement of jewelry, and mobile phone shell, etc.